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Various Rules

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Insh a Allah, here we will explain rules as they come through the course of lessons.

Now for u to say for example I want to eat

U would just say

أريد أن آكل

ureed an aakul

u don’t need to say

أنا أريد أن آكل

ana ureed an aakul

You skip the pronoun

تريد أن تآكل

tureed an ta-akul

يريد أن يأكل

ureed an ya-akul

نريد أن نأكل

nureed an – na-akul

So the alef at the beginning would imply that u r talking about yourself, the ta indicates you r referring to a singular female.

The ya indicates talking about a singular male, the noun indicates we.

So to make it more simple:

The prefix for the present tense:

alef = I

ya = he

ta = she

noun = we

As for the past tense, it takes a suffix as follows:

أكلت

akaltu

I ate

أكل

akala

he ate

أكلت

akalat

she ate

أكلنا

akalna

we ate

أكلوا

akalou

they ate

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some words for i eat, i sit, start with a

other words for i love, i want, start with u

is there a rule for the difference?

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As Salam Alykom Akhi Raafi

Ahlan wa Sahlan, it is good to see u hear despite your busy schedule. Let me clear something first, r u talking about this post or in general from your experience. Any way I will try to explain something here Insh a Allah

It depends on the harka Raafi (tashkeel)

for ex.

أريد أن آكل

ureed an aakul

While

أجلس

sit

would be

ajles

أحب أن

uheb an

I love to

the alef has a damah

Was this helpful???

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طبعآ

و لكن

if i want, its ureed

what is areed?

if its i love, it uhibb

what is ahibb?

if its sit, its ijlis

what is ajlis or ujlis?

akul is i eat

what is ikul or ukul?

i know, a'raf

what is u'raf or i'raf?

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طبعآ

و لكن

if i want, its ureed

what is areed?

To the best of my knowledg it is only ureed, may be some people in a`amiyah use areed.

if its i love, it uhibb

what is ahibb?

The same things it is only uhibb, while u may say:

أحببت

ahbabtu, this is the only time alef shall have a fatha

if its sit, its ijlis

what is ajlis or ujlis?

This one is different, ijlis is a command form:

ex:

إجلس يا أحمد

Ijlis ya Ahmed

while it is ana ajlis

أنا أجلس

As for ujlis, it is the مبنى للمجهول i am not sure what u call this form in English I will check it Insh a Allah.

Ujlis a`alal a`arash

أجلس على العرش

with a damah on alef. It means he was made to sit on the throan.

أجلست على الكرسى

Ujlist a`alakorsy

I was made to sit on the chair.

akul is i eat

what is ikul or ukul?

if u can get me this in Arabic with tashkeel so that I may exactly know how they sound

i know, a'raf

what is u'raf or i'raf?[/quote:707013b4ed]

U`raf is also the same مبنى للمجهول form

like when Allah says I was unkown and I wanted to be known

كنت غيبا وأحببت أن [u:707013b4ed][b:707013b4ed]أعرف[/b:707013b4ed][/u:707013b4ed]

in this case the alef would have a damah

as for i`raf pls get me the arabic with tashkeel

hope I was able to explain

jazakum Allah khairan

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Possession form:

كتابى

ketaby

my book

كتابك

ketabuk

your book

كتابه

ketabuh

his book

كتابها

ketabuha

her book

كتابنا

ketabuna

our book

كتابهم

ketabuhum

their book (for both feminine and masculin plrural)

From the above mention, we derive the following:

The suffix changes with the change of the implied pronoun:

It is:

ى for mine

ك for yours

ه for his

ها for hers

نا for ours

هم for theirs

Let us do another example and then I will ask u to do some examples yourselves

أم

mother

أمى

my mother

ummi

أمك

your mother

ummuki (addressing a female) / ummuka (addressing a male)

أمها

her mother

ummuha

امه

ummuhu

his mother

أمنا

ummuna

our mother

أمهم

ummuhum

their mother

You may choose a word and apply the rule and see how it works here.

I will suggest some basic simple words:

بيت = bayt (house) - مدرسة = madrasah (school) - جامعة = jame`ah (university) - ملابس = malabes (clothes)

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[b:e08422620b]As Salam Alykom

Here we will explain the preference adjective:

When u compare between two things saying for example I am stronger than u:

Strong= قوى

أنا أقوى منك

I am stronger than u

ana aqwa minka

Tall= طويل

انا أطول من أختى

I am taller than my sister

ana atwal min ukhti

Short= قصير

إيمان أقصر من عبد الله

Eman is shorter than Abdullah

Eman aqsar min Abdullah

Old = كبير

أحمد أكبر من على

Ahmed is older than Ali

Ahmed akbar min Ali

أنا أكبر منك

Ana akbar minka

I am older than you

Large = كبير

هذا البناء أكبر من بيتى

This building is larger than my house

Hadhal bena-a akbar min bayti

To make this simple, u take the adjective and change it to the sound of أفعل afa`al and the rule is called أفعل تفضيل

afa`al tafdeel

To make sure u understood this rule, pls give me the preference adjectives of:

جميل، صغير، قبيح، واسع[/b:e08422620b][/size:e08422620b]

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as salam alykom

Insh a Allah we will explain the negatives:

ليس لم لا لن ما

laysa, lam, la, lan, and ma

About ليس

laysa does change with the pronoun but in a different form:

let us take examples from Quran:

وإن جاهداك على أن تشرك بى ما ليس لك به علم"

سورة لقمان 15

"But if they (both) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me othersthat of which you have no knowledge " (Quran 31:15). The underlined part is where ليس lays is acting.

"Wa-in jahadaka AAala an tushrika bee ma laysa laka bihi AAilmun ". So ma laysa here would be of which u have no.

ليست for feminine u use laysat

ex: القطة ليست جملية

Alqettah laysat jameelah

The cat is not pretty

السيارة ليست أمام المنزل

Alasayarh laysat amael manzel

The car is not in front of the house

وقالت اليهود ليست النصارى على شئ

البقرة 113

"The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion);"

"Waqalati alyahoodu laysati alnnasara AAala shay-in "

The pronoun here is feminine (yahood) u may notice it from qalat, therefore we used laysat. The literal meaning is they are not.

ليسوا they are not

ليسوا سواء من أهل الكتاب

آل عمران 113

"Not all of them are alike; a party of the people of the Scripture " (Quran 3:113)

"Laysoo sawaan min ahli alkitabi "

لستم you are not

ولا تيمموا الخبيث منه تنفقون ولستم بأخذيه إلا أن تغمضو افيه

البقرة 267

"and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it, (though) you would not accept it save if you close your eyes" (Quran 2: 267)

"wala tayammamoo alkhabeetha minhu tunfiqoona walastum bi-akhitheehi illa an tughmidoo feehi "

لست you are not

ولا تقولوا لمن ألقى إليك السلام لست مؤمنا

النساء 94

"and say not to anyone who greets you (by embracing Islâm): "You are not a believer"; (Quran 4:94)

Now when u use it in a question form it comes like this:

ألست قادر على أن تحمل الطاولة

Aren't u able to carry the table

alsat qader a`ala-an tahmel ettawelah

وإذ أخذ ربك من بنى آدم من ظهورهم ذريتهم وأشهدهم على أنفسهم ألست بربكم قالوا بلى شهدنا

الأعراف 172

"And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (or from Adam’s loin his offspring) and made them testify as to themselves (saying): "Am I not your Lord?" They said: "Yes! We testify," (Quran 7:172)

"Wa-ith akhatha rabbuka min banee adama min thuhoorihim thurriyyatahum waashhadahum AAala anfusihim alastu birabbikum qaloo bala shahidna "

أليس is another form of putting a question using lays: alaysa

أسرع المشى أليس البيت قريب

hurry up, isn't the house close?

إن موعدهم الصبح أليس الصبح بقريب

هود 81

"will afflict her. Indeed, morning is their appointed time. Is not the morning near?" (Quran 11:81)

"inna mawAAidahumu alssubhu alaysa alssubhu biqareebin"

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ما ma negates something in the past just like lam

As in Ayah 67 of Surat Al Emran:” ما كان إبراهيم يهوديا ولا نصرانيا ولكن كان حنيفا مسلما وما كان من المشركين”

If u look at it it means Ibraheem was not. As if u would say لم يكن " Abraham was not a Jew nor yet a Christian;"

So to put it in a simple form:

لا la is نهى nay do not do

لم lam and ما ma negates something in the past: لم أقرأ ما قرأت lam aqra-a / ma qara-at

لن is a challenge to one who would not be able to do something

لن تستطيع أن تحمل الطاولة

lan tastaee`a an tahmel atawellah

you will not be able to carry the table

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As Salam Alykom

I got this further explanation from another board saw to add it here:

The particle 'maa' is for negating the past tense verb...e.g. maa fahimtu (I didn't understand).

lam...is a jazm giving partical and it enters upon the present tense verb (mudhari e.g. yafhamu)...makes the last letters sakin...and it changes the meaning from present tense to the past and negates it just like 'maa'...so esencially lam afham means the same as maa fahimtu i.e. I did not understand. Howevere, there is a slight degree of emphasis in lam which is not in maa...like in terms of usage you would choose the simple maa fahimtu..when ur listener requires simple information...if the listener is in doubt or actuall arguing with u, you would use the lam afham...

Laa in arabic is two types...one that comes on the present tense verb and negates it...like laa yansuru...simply means 'he does not help'...this laa is not a governing agent i.e. it does not change the last letter of the verb.

The other laa is the 'nahi laa' the one for prohibition...this one like lam makes the last letter of the verb sakin..look at the difference.

1. laa tansuru..You do not help

2. Laa tansur...Don't help

laysa.....is a verb unlike the first three for they were all particals..

laysa enters upon the ismiyyah sentence (subject and predicate)...and alters the gramatical state of both...like if you had al-Muallimu Hadirun (the teacher is present)..then you add laysa to the front..it will now read laysa al-Mualimu haadiran (the teacher is not present)...Note the hadiran...before it was haadirun...so the last letter changed from dhammas to fathas...laysa did that..

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As Salam Alykom

There are three types of plural form:

Perfect feminine plural جمع مؤنث سالم

Perfect masculin plural جمع مذكر سالم

Irregular جمع تكسير

Now as for the 1st:

Any fminine word (ending with a ta marbouta) is changed into plural by adding at the end alef and ta ات:

Such as:

جميلة جميلات تلميذة تلميذات طاولة طاولات

tawelah tawelat telmeedha telmeedhat jamilah jameelat

table tables student students pretty

2nd:

Any masculine word is changed into plural by adding at the end either waw noun or ya noun according to its position in the sentence such as:

فلاح فلاحون أو فلاحين مدرس مدرسون أو مدرسين

fallah fallahoun or fallaheen modares modaresoon or modareseen

farmer farmers teacher teachers

Now we come to the irregular, actually it has no rule and u gain knowledge about it by reading and practice such as:

رجل رجال قدم أقدام أم أمهات حائط حوائط

rajul rejal qadam aqdam um ummahat ha-et hawa-et

Man men, foot feet, mother mothers, wall walls

we may need to create a list that develops by time for the irregular plural Insh a Allah

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as salam alykom

As for the irregular form of plural ja`a takseer جمع تكسير

It is called so because it breaks the rule of plural

In the following we will include a number of words that follow the jama`a takseer rule:

أرض أراضين

ard aradeen

earth earths

سماء سموات

sama-a samawat

skies skies

بضاعة بضائع

beda`ah bada-e`a

commodity commodities

لحم لحوم

lahm lohoum

meet I guess no plural in english am I right???

غلام غلمان

ghulam ghelman

young boy young boys

Insh a Allah we will keep trying to build a list here, since u only gain knowledge of them by practice

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As Salam Alykom

The difference between lee and a`andi

لى وعندى

Both are possession particles. But used in different locations.

So now lee is used for things given permenantly like i can say:

لى عينين ويدين وقدمين

ly a`aynayn, wa yadayn wa qadamyn

I have two eyes, two hands, two feet

لى سيارة ولى بيت ولى أب وأم

lee sayrah, lee bayt, lee ub wa umm

I have a car, a house, a father and mother

As in quran check Suratu Al balad ayahs 8-9 Allah say naja`al lahu.

while a`andi is for the things that u have them on temporary bases.

like u say:عندى وقت فراغ

عندى أصدقائى

عندى طعام

a`andi waqt faragh

a`endi asdiqa-ei

a`endi ta`am

I have free time

I have freinds (here it is in the sense that u have them on a visit)

I have food

hope u got the difference

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عفوا أخى ولكن

الصح أن تقول

شكرا على كل ما شرحت

because I expalined and did not write

شرحت = explained

كتبت = wrote

u used the present tense for يكتب

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