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  1. as salam alykom It is the best ten days again, may Allah Support us to achieve optimal benefit ameen!
  2. The Best Days in the World Based on "Al-A`yaad fil Islaam" [by Muhammad. al-Jibaly, published by QSS] -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The Blessed Days of Dhul Hijjah In what follows, we will highlight some of the Sunnah regarding these days, hoping by this to provide an incentive to make the best out of them and gain Allaah's reward, in shaa' Allaah. The First Ten Days of Dhul-Hijjah "The best days in the world are the Ten days." [ibn Hibbaan, al-Bazzaar, authenticated in Saheeh Jaami` us-Sagheer #1133] "There are no days during which good deeds are more beloved by Allaah than these (ten) days." [al-Bukhaaree, at-Tirmidhee and others] The Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, was then asked: "Not even Jihaad in Allaah's way?" He replied: "Not even Jihaad in Allaah's way; except for a person who went out (for Jihaad) with his self and wealth and came back with none (i.e. lost all for Allaah)." [at-Tirmidhee, authenticated in al-Albaanee's Irwaa' ul-Ghaleel, #953] All good deeds can be done during these days and the early generations of Muslims used to exert themselves excessively in worshipping Allaah. In particular, fasting and dhikr (mentioning and remembering Allaah) are to be done in plenty on these days. Dhikr Ibn `Abbaas commented on the verse <<.and to mention Allaah's name [plentifully] on Known days>> [22:28] by saying: <.these known days are the ten days [of Dhul Hijjah].> [Tafseer ibn Katheer] Fasting One of the wives of the Prophet, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, said: "Allaah's Messenger used to fast the (first) nine days of Dhul Hijjah, the day of `Ashooraa', and three days of each month. [saheeh Sunan Abee Daawood #2129] Fasting on all these days, however, is not a waajib (compulsory), nor is it a constant sunnah that the Messenger, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, never dropped. `Aa'ishah said: "I never saw the Messenger, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, fast the ten days." [Muslim] The Day of `Arafah - The Best Day of the Whole Year The day of `Arafah is the day when the pilgrims stand in worship on the Mountain of `Arafah. "Fasting the day of `Arafah expiates the [minor] sins of two years: a past one and a coming one. And fasting the day of `Aashooraa' expiates the sins of the past year." [Muslim] "There is no day on which Allaah `azza wa jall frees people from the Fire as He does no the day of `Arafah. He comes close (to those standing on `Arafah) and then revels before His angels, saying: "What are these people seeking?" [Muslim] The Day of al-`Ad-haa The tenth of Dhul-Hijjah is `Eed ul- Ad-haa or the day of an-Nahr (slaughtering). It marks the conclusion of the major rites of Hajj, and commemorates Allaah's bounty on His Messenger Ibraaheem, when He gave him a ram to sacrifice as ransom for his son Ismaa`eel, `alayhimassalaam. "The day of al-Fitr [i.e. `Eed ul-Fitr], the day of an-Nahr, and the days of Tashreeq are `Eed days for us Muslims. They are days of eating and drinking." [Ahmad, an-Nasaa'ee, Saheeh ul-Jaami` #8192] The Three Days Following `Eed ul-`Ad-haa On these days, the pilgrims complete their rites, Muslims continue with their `Eed celebrations, and are prohibited to fast. "The days of tashreeq are days of eating, drinking and mentioning Allaah." [Muslim] The Sacrifice Allaah `azza wa jall mentioned the sacrifice together with the first and foremost worship in Islaam: prayer. This is a clear indication of its great importance. Thus He ordered His Messenger, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, to slaughter sacrifices by saying: <<.Pray unto your Lord and slaughter [your sacrifice]." [109:2] Ruling The general concensus of the Muslim scholars is that the sacrifice is an important sunnah, and a worship called for in the Law of Allaah. However, they differ as to whether it is nafl (voluntary) or waajib (mandatory) for those who can afford it. Some scholars have explained the different ahaadeeth on the subject by stating that the sacrifice is obligatory on those who can afford it and not obligatory on those who cannot. Abu Hurayrah reported that the Messenger, sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam, said: "He who has the capacity, and does not sacrifice, may not approach our musallaa (place of prayer - on the `Eed)." [ibn Maajah, Ahmad and others, authenticated by Al-Albaanee in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah, #2533] Regarding this hadeeth, Imaam ash-Shaukaanee said: "Prohibiting the one who could afford to sacrifice, but did not do so, from approaching the musallaa indicates that he must have left off a waajib, as it becomes useless to offer the salaah without this waajib [obligation]." [Nayl ul-Awtaar] Avoid Cutting Hair or Nails The one who plans to sacrifice (normally, the head of household) is prohibited to cut his hair or nails from the first Dhul Hijjah until he offers the sacrifice. "For the one who has a slaughtering to perform (on `Eed then, once the hilaal (crescent) of Dhul Hijjah is observed, let him not cut any of his hair or nails until he sacrifices." And in another narration: "Once the ten days start, for those of you who havethe intention to sacrifice, let them not cut any of their hair or nails (until they sacrifice)." [Muslim] This prohibition is the opinion of the majority of the scholars of the early generations of Muslims. Allaahu A`lam Our last call is all praise is to Allaah and may His salaah and salaam be upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family. from:
  3. Let us remind ourselves!
  4. Bismillah As salam alykom We already started the last ten days which include Laylatul Qadr which is better than 1000 months according to Quran in terms of worship. It is preferred for the Muslim to repeat on Laylatul Qadr the phrase: Allahum inaka a`fown tohebul a`fw fa`afo a`ni. O Allah You are the All Pardon Who Loves to Pardon, thus, Pardon me. This is based on a hadeeth: Narrated under the authority of A`aesha may Allah be Pleased with her who said: I said: O Messenger of Allah, do you see if I learnt which night is the night of Qader, what do I say? He said: say, Allahum inaka a`fown tohebul a`fw fa`afo a`ni" reported by Termidhi.
  5. Timely read!
  6. Remember to give it our as soon as possible!
  7. It means the amount of alms becomes compulsory upon fast breaking from Ramadan. It is obligatory for each Muslim, young, old, male, female, free or enslaved. Bukharai and Muslim reported that Ibn Omar (may Allah be pleased with both of them) narrated:” Prophet Mohamed (PAPBUH) made compulsory, for salve, free, male, female, young and old of Muslims, the payment of alms upon the end of Ramadan: fast breaking at the end of the month with the amount of both hands full of date or barely” Reasoning behind its payment: It was ordained in Shabaan of the second year of Hijra bearing the sense of purifying the fasting person of any obscenity or pointless talking he/she may have made. Simultaneously, it assists the poor and needy people upon Eid. Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with both of them said:” The Messenger of Allah (PAPBUH) ordained alms of Fitr as purification for the fasting person from any pointless talking, and obscenity, as well as food for the poor. One who pays it out before Eid prayer is an accepted Zakah while one who pays it after Eid prayer is just an ordinary Sadaqa (alms)” It is compulsory to be paid by the free Muslim who affords the amount mentioned above. However, the amount must be over the regular needs of the person and his family. One must pay Zakat u lfirt for himself and on behalf of whoever he supports including, wife, children and servants whom he financially supports. The amount is: both hands full of grain, barely, dates, raisins, dried milk, rice or corn or whatever is considered of food. However, Abou Hanifa (scholar) permitted the payment of what is worth of money. For further clarification, head of family, male or female must pay Zakat u lfitr for each person he/she (in case of a single mother or an unmarried female who has no Muslim male relatives) financially supports plus him/herself. The amount of money equal to the price of the above mentioned quantities must be paid for every individual to the Muslim poor people. The time of payment: It is due by the end of Ramadan, however, must be given out before Eid prayer. One must strictly observe the timing other wise it remains a debt that must be fulfilled. To whom it must be paid?: To poor people as the Messenger of Allah (PAPBUH) said: “Satisfy them on the day of Eid, let them not ask for assistance” as narrated by Ibn Omar (may Allah be pleased with both of them). May Allah accept all our deeds and save us from Hell as He promised by the end of this blessed month.
  8. The last ten days already started, tonight is of the 24th!
  9. Highlighting the thread!
  10. Highlighting the topic!
  11. Ramadan Mubarak 1439, we started in Egypt May 17th. May Allah Support us to make optimal benefit of this unique month In sh a Allah.
  12. The Muslims countries had been inflicted recently with very strange practices, I am speaking at least about where I live, Egypt. Those practices are growing year after another. Rather than preparing for Ramadan by taking serious intention to change, seize the opportunity when Allah Opens wide gates of mercy, forgiveness, repentance, and ponder how will one go about the month, how one can develop a check list of what one wants to gain or refrain from, TV channels mobilise all possible production resources manifested in loads and loads of TV series starring best figures in town, commercials are flooding about those drama every 10 minutes on TV, billboards are installed all over the city in prime location where no one can miss them at all, tempting and triggering the crave to watch. Leave alone normal Egyptian houses are preparing by applying certain style of decorations, including lantern, tent material, also food is stocked like no other time. As if Ramadan had been really summarised into such stuff. How come? they say that decorations help attracting youth and children who always compare our occasions with Christmas ..etc. Saying why dont we have similar attractive manifestations?? Well, our Ramadan, and Eids have totally different connotations and meanings that are not at all relevant to decorations and other material preparations. Leave alone the TV drama which does nothing but help strongly in putting the hearts to death? do we need this? no. Will our fast and Salat be In sh a Allah Accepted even if we didnt watch those drama, decorate our houses..etc. Yes In sh a Allah. Then let us define the goal of Ramadan: to attain at the end forgiveness, acceptance and pardon of Allah. How can we attain this? by focusing on our Ibada. Let us do it.
  13. as salam alykom Al Shamms. welcome back. Alhamdulelah the board is still up and running.
  14. We all need to refresh!
  15. Ramadan Mubarak 1438 H., 2017 G. 27th of May!
  16. It was narrated that Hanzalah Tamimi Al-Usaiyidi, the scribe, said: “We were with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and we spoke of Paradise and Hell until it was as if we could see them. Then I got up and went to my family and children, and I laughed and played (with them). Then I remembered how we had been, and I went out and met Abu Bakr, and said: ‘I have become a hypocrite!’ Abu Bakr said: ‘We all do that.’” So Hanzalah went and mentioned that to the Prophet (ﷺ), who said: “O Hanzalah, if you were (always) as you are with me, the angels would shake hands with you in your beds and in your streets. O Hanzalah, there is a time for this and a time for that.” حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا الْفَضْلُ بْنُ دُكَيْنٍ، عَنْ سُفْيَانَ، عَنِ الْجُرَيْرِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِي عُثْمَانَ، عَنْ حَنْظَلَةَ الْكَاتِبِ التَّمِيمِيِّ الأُسَيِّدِيِّ، قَالَ ‏:‏ كُنَّا عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ فَذَكَرْنَا الْجَنَّةَ وَالنَّارَ حَتَّى كَأَنَّا رَأْىَ الْعَيْنِ فَقُمْتُ إِلَى أَهْلِي وَوَلَدِي فَضَحِكْتُ وَلَعِبْتُ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏:‏ فَذَكَرْتُ الَّذِي كُنَّا فِيهِ فَخَرَجْتُ فَلَقِيتُ أَبَا بَكْرٍ فَقُلْتُ ‏:‏ نَافَقْتُ، نَافَقْتُ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ ‏:‏ إِنَّا لَنَفْعَلُهُ ‏.‏ فَذَهَبَ حَنْظَلَةُ فَذَكَرَهُ لِلنَّبِيِّ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ فَقَالَ ‏:‏ ‏ "‏ يَا حَنْظَلَةُ لَوْ كُنْتُمْ كَمَا تَكُونُونَ عِنْدِي لَصَافَحَتْكُمُ الْمَلاَئِكَةُ عَلَى فُرُشِكُمْ - أَوْ عَلَى طُرُقِكُمْ - يَا حَنْظَلَةُ سَاعَةٌ وَسَاعَةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ Grade : Sahih (Darussalam) English reference : Vol. 5, Book 37, Hadith 4239 Arabic reference : Book 37, Hadith 4380
  17. Sobhan Allah, first off welcome to the board Bari. Well, about hearing non believers, Allah Assigns a number of angles to any human being, as you must be knowing by now, and Alhamdulelah for accepting Islam, that angles are ranks and categories, only those who have duties towards Children of Adam were commanded to prostrate to Adam. As you read in Surat Qaf and Raad, there are angles on both shoulders writing down all what we do, regardless of the faith, others are there to protect the human being from front, back, up and both sides, but when Qadarullah Is Decreed, they make way for it to be implemented. Sobhan Allah!
  18. − the Muslim Council of Elders Conference titled as: Freedom, Citizenship, Diversity and Integration" Cairo, 28 February. In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful, Most Compassionate As salam alykom wa Rahamatullah wa barakatuh (May the Peace and Blessings of Allah be Upon you" Dear respected panelists! August participants! On behalf of Al Azhar Al Sharief and Muslims Council of Elders, I would like to welcome all of you, and express my pleasure for holding this conference of paramount importance. I also extend my thanks to President Sisi, President of Egypt for taking special interest in holding the Conference. As the region and the world at large, are experiencing extraordinary circumstances and hard times, the holding of this event becomes timely specially when wars erupted in our Arab and Muslim world in absence of any rational verification that could be accepted by the human being who lives during the 21st century. It is amazing and ironic to create an image of religion as the flame of those wars, yet Islam had been introduced to the public as the tool of destruction used against the WTC, and explosions of Bataclan Theater and metro stations. In addition, Islam's teachings had been portrayed as means to crush bodies of innocent people in Nice and other cities east and west and other forms of horrendous scenes that are expanding specially with the growing trends of extremism and the shrinking size of sound understanding of monotheistic religions, the essence of divine messages which clash with the misinterpretations. At the end, sacred texts are hijacked by the criminal minority, violators of those texts, who are paid by war brokers, arms dealers and gurus of the neo colonialism philosophies for using those texts as weapons. It is just enough to reflect upon this group of violators who are raising the banner of Islam, but concurrently engage in mutual accusations of betrayal and Takfeer. If this proves anything, it proves that their cause is not religion driven. But rather using Islam to legitimatize their blood shedding acts. Another point that allows us to pinpoint falsehood of such bloody calls: the issue was not correcting the collapsed religion, as they claim, but it was shedding rivers of blood, wasting many souls, leave alone the destruction of human achievements anywhere. Until very recent, this stray small party only had limited impact and threat, that was incapable of distorting the Muslims' image. Nevertheless, it almost succeeded in mobilizing the whole world against Islam. In this context, we are confronted with Islamophobia throughout the western world which had an enormous negative effect on Muslim communities living there. We are not intending to examine Islamophobia or terrorism which is harbouring this phenomenon, nor trying to determine whether terrorism is a local industry or had been manufactured globally in collusion with human rights activists, sponsors of global peace, coexistence, freedom and equality and other values that had been incorporated in international conventions. In my opinion, conferences and events should be held in particular to discuss all of the aforementioned, allowing a space for religious clergy, thinkers, free and wise individuals to come together for the purpose of disclosing the true colours of this modern plague with a view to identify the responsible parties. Nevertheless, only a fair person who ponders upon the phenomenon of Islamophobia shall never miss the irrational discrimination, or the double standards applied in the global trial held against Islam on one side and Christianity and Judaism on the other, although all three monotheistic religions share the same plea of accusations and the case of violence and religious terrorism filed against them. In this regard, Christian and Jewish extremism had been easily accepted by the West, whereby, the image of both monotheistic religions had not been desecrated. But their third brother (Islam) had been solely locked into the dock, leave alone the on going accusations and defamation. Indeed, the ugliest forms of Christian and Jewish violence had passed peacefully reflecting complete separation between religion and terrorism. For example: Rev. Michael Bray explosive attacks against abortion clinics, Timothy McVeigh responsible about the bombing of Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City, David Koresh whose religious discourse resulted into the incidents in Texas, leave alone the religious conflict in North Ireland, the involvement of some religious institutions in genocide and rape against more than two hundred and fifty thousand Bosnian Muslims. August assembly! Allah Knows, I didn't intend to poke wounds, or renew conflicts between fellow human beings, as this is not the message of religions, Al Azhar, tolerant East, not even the message of the rational civilised west. I only wanted to say that: unless eastern and western religious institutions come together to address Islamophobia, sooner or later, it shall extend to affect Christianity and Judaism. On that day, nothing could actually help. Atheists, those who proclaim the death of God, or promoters of materialism, followers of Nazi, communism, advocates of legalising drugs, destruction of family, applying the system of collective sex, promoters of abortion, the right to change from male to female and vice versa, those who are calling to replace nationalism with globalisation, elimination of different cultures, hijacking the civilization, religious and historical characteristics of nations which is actually a growing call asking to entrust the EU with such powers. All of the aforementioned calls are like tidal waves that are strongly expected and shall first hit and crush monotheistic religions, as they are perceived by those advocates as the source of wars. For instance, Christianity resulted into Crusades, and Islam is spreading terrorism and shedding blood. Nothing could help except by eliminating religion. The group of advocates turn a deaf ear when it comes to civil wars erupted by atheists and extreme secularists in the beginning and middle of the last century. Religions were completely innocent from those atrocities. It is very easy for any primary school student to learn about hundreds of murdered people who fell victims of modern social schools of thoughts, to find out that history only identified tenth of one tenth of millions of victims who had been either killed, exiled or tortured for the sake of false messages versus the number of victims of religions. August scholastic participants! I believe you agree with me that it is not enough to prove that religions has nothing to do with terrorism specially vis a vis such vicious challenges. But we need to initiate another step which is to apply religious principles and morals on this turbulent reality. In my opinion, this step would require necessary preparations, primarily, eliminating the remaining tensions and concerns from among religious leader, unless peace is achieved among those who call for peace, they can never give it to people. In return, this requires callers to come to know one another, engage in cooperation and integration, which is actually a religious request. Islam, to which I proudly belong, draws our attention in a verse of Quran which is very well known to both Muslims and Christians as it had been frequently repeated in different events: " O humankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you with Allah is that (believer) who is most pious. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware." (Quran 49:13) Another fundamental right is underscored in Islam which is the right to freedom and liberalization from any kind of pressures specially those related to the freedom of religion, and belief: "no compulsion in religion" (Quran 2:256), " And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together. So, will you (O Muhammad) then compel humankind, until they become believers." (10:99), " You are not a dictator over them." (88:22), " Your duty is to convey (the Message). (Quran 42:48). The Messenger Salla Allahu a`lyhee wa sallam sent a letter to people of Yemen including a clause: "If a Jew or a Christian hated Islam, he shall not be converted", in addition to a long list of religious texts that establish the right to freedom and liberalisation. Al Azhar is calling for diffusing the concept of "citizenship" as an alternative to the term "minority", reflecting a constitutional principle applied by the Prophet of Islam salla Allahu a`lyhee wa sallam on the first Muslim community which is the State of Medina. In this context, he decided to apply equality among Muslim immigrants and Ansar (supporters), all Jewish tribes and sects which meant to consider all of them as citizens who are equal in rights and duties. Thus, Islamic heritage had preserved a relevant detailed document as a constitution that was not known in any system before Islam. Respected participants! I took a long time, but I was tempted by your sound attention, in conclusion, I extend my sincere thanks to President Abdul Fattah Assisi, President of Egypt, for his auspicious to this Conference expressing his deep appreciation to your major role in calling to peace, freedom, citizenship, and coexistence. I would like also to thank our respected guests, participants, and all of those who participated in organizing the conference. In addition, I apologise to our foreign guests for any shortcomings.
  19. as salam alykom brother Ifit, even if you will not check the reply, I will put it anyway for others. I echo each and every word. Not only that the battle is eliminating native languages but replacing the alpha bet (In Urdu and Arabic) with latin letters. Now I see Pakistanis typing Urdu with latin letters. Same thing is slowly introduced to Arabic. Native Arabic speaking youth are incapable of writing in Arabic now and they created new language typed in latin letters which they use among themselves. The tidal wave is very high. Once Arabic is eliminated, this is it. No one will be able to read Quran!!!!
  20. Another reminder, may Allah accept from all of us.
  21. Bismillah as salam alykom Dear Guest thank you for your interest in our site. However, your report was I believe in German which I dont master. So I could not understand your message. Kindly, send an English message for me to be able to help. Thank you again,
  22. as salam alykom my brothers and sisters I do need dua, pls
  23. Praise be to Allah, a praise which is adequate to Your graces and favors, Praise be to Allah abundant and special gratitude, we send prayer and peace on the best Messenger to the worlds our Prophet Mohamed, his family members, companions and whoever followed them until the day after. I seek refuge of Allah's Complete knowledge from my ignorance, "O my Lord! expand me my breast;* Ease my task for me* And remove the impediment from my speech* So they may understand what I say" While we are still surfing with the Noble Quran, this piece will be shedding light on positions where Allah employed His Names and Attributes in a way that best serves the meaning. Actually, in Arabic it is astounding, however, with Allah's close guidance will do my best to bring the meaning. "(They are) those who have Been expelled from their homes In defiance of right, (For no cause) except That they say. Our Lord Is Allah. Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, There would surely have been Pulled down monasteries, churches, Synagogues, and mosques, in which The name of Allah is commemorated In abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid His (cause); for verily Allah is Full of Strength (laQawy Azeez), Exalted in Might, (Able to enforce His Will)" (Quran 22:40). If we started analyzing this verse, we see that Allah started with an explanation about those who were compelled to flee their houses just for declaring that Allah is their Lord, then He moved to a confirmation about granting victory to those who stand firm for Allah's cause. (The underlined part is more to be granting victory rather than merely providing aid). And because He Shall grant victory and support He has to be at this position The Most Strong, The Possessor of All Strength and The Mighty. In the Arabic text the Name Qawy is preceded by a lam, it serves for more confirmation that He is the Most strong. "That (is so). And if one has retaliated to no greater extent than the injury be received, and is again set upon inordinately, Allah will help him: for Allah is Paroner (A`afow) and forgives (again and again)" (Quran 22:60). [b:a3bbce9e0f]In this verse Allah is Talking about retaliation and punishment in return for distress, because the topic here involves retaliation and punishment, He sat forth the rule on taking equal revenge without transgressing. Yet reminded us that since He is the One Who Owns pardon (A`afou: the first section of the underlined sentence) as well as One Who Forgives again and again. We might as well adopt this moral and pardon and forgive as well in such cases. [/color:a3bbce9e0f][/b:a3bbce9e0f] "That is because Allah merges night into day, and He merges day into night, and verily it is Allah who hears and sees (all things)" (Quran 22:61). [b:a3bbce9e0f]At this position since He is the One who alternates night and day, here He must be the All Hearer since He Hears all what takes place during day time and Seeing (Baseer) who sees also all what takes place during night time.[/b:a3bbce9e0f][/color:a3bbce9e0f] "That is because Allah He is The Truth; and those besides Him whom they invoke, they are but vain Falsehood: verily Allah is He, Most High, Most Great" (Quran 22: 62). [b:a3bbce9e0f]Because He is The Truth and being endures unchangingly, then the verse must also end with a further confirmation for a description that fits His incomparable nature Most High, Most Great.[/color:a3bbce9e0f][/b:a3bbce9e0f] "Seest thou not that Allah sends down rain from the sky, and forthwith the Earth becomes clothed with green? for Allah is He who understands the finest mysteries, and The All Aware. He who has the knowledge of inner and most secret aspects of all things " (Quran 22: 63). [b:a3bbce9e0f]This verse is extremely powerful, look at the beginning, Allah is One Who gifts His servants with rain from the sky which in turn causes land to grow plants forming a green carpet. Because He does this, He must be here The Subtle One. He who knows the minutest subtleties of all things so that to be able to send the rain from the sky and of course The All Aware. He who has the knowledge of inner & most secret aspects of all things. [/color:a3bbce9e0f][/b:a3bbce9e0f] "To Him belongs all that is in the Heavens and on Earth: for verily Allah, He is free of all wants, worthy of all praise" (Quran 22: 64). [b:a3bbce9e0f]Whereas here again He affirm that He Own all what is in the skies and earth. Therefore He must be He Who is not in need for anybody / thing and The Rich one. He who is infinitely rich and completely Independent. (Ghany), and also worthy of all praise for what He gives us. Sobhan Allah. The same style is used here in the Arabic text the Name Ghany is preceded by lahowa it means certainly He is.[/color:a3bbce9e0f][/b:a3bbce9e0f] "Seest thou not that Allah has made subject to you (men) and that is on the Earth, and the ships that sail through the Sea by His command? He withholds the Sky (rain) from falling on the Earth except by His leave: for Allah is the Most Kind and Most Merciful to man" (Quran 22:65). [b:a3bbce9e0f]Because Allah in this verse dedicated what is on earth for mankind in addition to the ships which sail in the see of course by His command so that we may benefit in many ways of transportation of people or goods and then made us secure while living on this earth. Secure because He holds the sky in order not to fall on earth. In this case He must be the Most Kind and Merciful. Through this kindness and mercy all of the previously mentioned is happening. [/color:a3bbce9e0f][/b:a3bbce9e0f]" No just estimate have they made of Allah: for Allah is He who is strong and able to carry out his will" (Quran 22: 74). [b:a3bbce9e0f]While again in this verse He is reminding us that there are some people who failed actually to understand and give Allah the adequate estimate. Adequate estimate for Who? Of course for the One Who is Full of Strength and Exalted in Might (Qawy Azeez).[/color:a3bbce9e0f][/b:a3bbce9e0f] Sobhan Allah a`ama yasefoun: Glory to God (He is free) from the things they ascribe (to Him). Brothers and sister, I was actually trembling before putting this article together, trembling of fear not to be up to explaining about His Names and Attributes. Have been hesitant to do it for a long time, then I said to myself I might as well try and invoke upon Al A`aleem to Help me, accept my humble effort and all of our efforts. Actually no effort can reach a precise explanation of His Names and Attributes we only try. But on the other hand it makes us really comfortable and relaxed to know that we are living under the canopy of He Who is Full of Strength and Exalted in Might. Praise be to Allah who guided us for this and if it was not for Him we would have never been guided and I send the best prayer and blessing on our leader, teacher and Prophet Mohamed Ibn Abdullah who fought for the truth a real fighting may Allah reward him with the best reward.
  24. by Sheikh Salim Morgan From Ibn Masood (ra) who said that the Prophet (sas) said: "Among that which reached the people from the words of the earlier prophethood: If you feel no shame, then do whatever you wish." (Bukhari) The Prophet (sas) informed us that this statement was part of one of the previously communicated teachings from Allah and that it was passed around among the peoples until it reached the beginning of this nation. Another version of this hadith starts out: "Nothing has reached the people from the words of the previous prophethoods except this..." In any case, NOTHING which is allegedly from the previous revelations can be trusted or said to contain truth or wisdom unless it is specifically confirmed by Allah's final communication to mankind, the one sent to Muhammad (sas) and the ONLY one which is preserved intact. The meaning of these words can go two ways: First Meaning: The meaning is NOT an order to "do whatever you wish" which is the apparent meaning of the words, rather its meaning is condemnation or prohibition of that. Within this possible linguistic construction, there are two possible meanings: 1.That it constitutes a threat and a warning. Thus the meaning is: If you have no shame, then do whatever you wish and Allah will repay it fully and appropriately. Allah said: {Those who deviate from truth regarding our signs are not hidden from us. Is the one thrown into the fire better or the one who comes as a believer on Qiyama? Do whatever you wish for He surely sees all that you do.} {So worship whatever you like beside Allah. Say, the losers are those who lose themselves and their families on Qiyama. Verily, that is the clearest of losses.} 2.That it constitutes and informational statement. Thus the meaning would be: Whoever feels no shame will do whatever they wish, for that which prevents the commission of evil is shame and whoever has no shame will descend into all manner of obscenity and sin. This concept of an order which only means information is similar to the Prophet's (sas) statement: "Whoever knowingly lied about me, let him prepare himself for his place in the fire." Shame is part of belief (iman). From Abu Huraira from the Prophet (sas) who said: "Faith is some seventy odd parts and shame is one of the parts of faith." Ashajj ibn 'Asar said: Allah's Messenger (sas) said to me, "You have two attributes which Allah loves." I said, "And what are they." He (sas) said: "Maturity and shame." I said, "Have they been with me since long ago or just recently?" He (sas) said: "Since long ago." I said, "Praise be to Allah who put in my nature two attributes which He loves." There are two kinds of shame: 1.That which is innate and of the nature of the person. Al-Jarraah ibn Abdullah Al-Hakamiy said: "I stayed away from sins out of shame for forty years and only after that I acquired some piety." 2.That which is acquired and part of a change one makes in themself for Allah. From Abdullah ibn Mas'ood who said that Allah's messenger (sas) said: "Have shame before Allah as is befitting." We said: "O Allah's Messenger, we do have shame praise be to Allah." He (sas) said: "Notthat, rather having shame before Allah as is befitting is to guard your head and what it contains, your stomach and what it takes in, to remember death and disintegration and whoever desires the hereafter leaves the ornamentation of this world. Whoever does all that has shame before Allah as is befitting. (At-Tirmidhi said we only know this hadith from this chain. It may be of the words of Ibn Mas'ood and not authenticated all the way to the Prophet (sas)). The Second Meaning Another way of understanding this hadith is that the command to "do whatever you wish" is just that - an order. Under this contruction, the meaning is: "If that which you intend or desire to do is not something the doing of which causes shame - before Allah or before people - because it is of the good deeds, obedience, good character and good manners, then go ahead and do it." Along these lines, some of the salaf said when asked about [muroo'a] (good and noble character), they answered: That you should never do in secret that which would cause you shame in public. From Abi Tamima Al-Hujaimiy from a man from his people who said: "I met Allah's Messenger (sas) on one of the roads of Al-Madinah ... and I said to him 'Upon you be peace O Messenger of Allah'. He (sas) said to me 'Upon you be peace is the greeting of the dead. Upon you be peace is the greeting of the dead. Upon you be peace is the greeting of the dead. Peace be upon you. Peace be upon you', two or three times like that ... Then I asked him about Al-Ma'roof (good deeds) and he (sas) said: "Do not belittle any good deeds. Even if it is giving a piece of rope, giving a shoelace, pouring water from your cup into the container of one seeking water, removing something harmful from the road or path, to meet your brother with a friendly face, to greet him with salaam, to give companionship to the lonely and even if someone speakes ill of you with something that he knows to be true about you and you likewise know it to be true of him, do not speak ill of him so his reward will be yours and his sin will be upon him. And, that which your ears would be pleased to hear (i.e., people mentioning it about you), do it and that which your ears would not like to hear, stay away from it. Whenever Islam defines a term, the Islamic definition supercedes and modifies and changes whatever the word meant among the people before that. From Ishaq, who is ibn Suwaid, that Aba Qatadah reported that: we were in the presence of 'Imraan ibn Husain and a group of us and among us was Bushair ibn Ka'ab. 'Imraan narrated to us that day saying: Allah's Messenger (sas) said: "Shame is good - all of it." Or, it was "All shame is good." Whereupon Bushair ibn Ka'ab said: We find in some of the books or the wisdom that some of it is calmness and dignity for Allah's sake and some of it is weakness. He (i.e., 'Imraan) became angry until his eyes became red and he said: "I see myself narrating to you from Allah's messenger (sas) and you oppose it?!" ... Islam Began and Returns Strange Islam started "strange" and went back to being "strange". Be among the "strangers" who "recitify what the people have corrupted". From Ibn Umar (ra) that the Prophet (sas) said: "Verily Islam started out strange and will return to being strange just as it started and it will shrink back to between the two Mosques like a snake retreating into its hole."
  25. Prophet Adam (PBUH) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Purpose and History Informing the Angels About Adam Allah the Almighty revealed: And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth." They said: 'Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, - while we glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You." He (Allah) said: "I know that which you do not know." Surah 2: 30 Teaching Adam And He taught Adam all the names (of everything), then He showed them to the angels and said: "Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful." They (angels) said: "Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Verily, it is You, the All-Knower, the All-Wise." He said: "0 Adam! Inform them of their names," and when he had informed them of their names, He said: "Did I not tell you that I know the Ghaib (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing?" And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before Adam." And they prostrated except Iblis, he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allah)." Surah 2: 31-34 The Fall from Paradise And We said: "0 Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimeen (wrong-doers)." Then the Satan made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were. We said: "Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time." Surah 2: 35-36 Allah's Mercy on Adam Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful. We said: "Get down all of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you Guidance from Me, and whoever follows My Guidance, there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve. But those who disbelieve and belie Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) such are the dwellers of the Fire, they shall abide therein forever." Surah 2: 38-39 Iblis (Satan), Man's Enemy Iblis's Arrogance Almighty Allah also revealed: And surely, We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being), then We told the angels, "Prostrate to Adam'; and they prostrated, except Iblis, he refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: 'What prevented you (0 Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you?" (Iblis) said: "I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay." (Allah) said: "0 Iblis, get down from this (Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced." Surah 7: 11-13 Iblis's Vow for Evil (Iblis) said: "Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (i.e. The Day of Resurrection)." (Allah) said: "You are of those allowed respite." (Iblis) said: "Because You have sent me astray, surely I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your Straight Path. Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them as thankful ones (i.e. they will not be dutiful to You)." (Allah) said (to Iblis): "Get out from this (Paradise) disgraced and expelled. Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely I will fill Hell with you all." Surah 7: 14-18 Eating from the Forbidden Tree "And 0 Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat thereof as you both wish, but approach not this tree otherwise you both will be of the Zalimeen (unjust and wrong-doers)." Then Satan whispered suggestions to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their private parts (before); he said: "Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals." And he (Satan) swore by Allah to them both (saying): "Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both." So he misled them with deception. Then when they tasted of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began to stick together the leaves of Paradise over themselves (in order to cover their shame). And their Lord called out to them (saying): "Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Satan is an open enemy unto you?" They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers." Allah said: "Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (i.e. Adam, Eve, and Satan, etc.). On earth will be a dwelling-place for you and an enjoyment, - for a time." He said: "Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (i.e., resurrected). Surah 7: 19-25 Traditions About Iblis There were many traditions about Iblis at the time of the Prophet Muhammad . Ibn Masud, Ibn Abbas, and a group of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad said that Iblis had been the head of the angels in the worldly heavens. Ibn Abbas said in one narration that his name had been Azazil, and in another narration he said it had been Al-Harith. Ibn 'Abbas also said that Iblis was a jinn and that they had once been the keepers of Paradise, with Iblis the most honorable, the most learned and the most pious of them. Another tradition says that he had been one of the famous four possessors of wings (i.e. angels), before Allah transformed him into the accursed Satan. Iblis's Vow to Mislead - Surah 38 Allah Almighty recounts Iblis's disobedience in another surah: (Remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Truly I am going to create man from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him." So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them: except Iblis, he was proud and was one of the disbelievers. (Allah) said: "0 Iblis! What prevents you from prostrating yourself to one whom I have created with Both My Hands. Are you too proud (to fall prostrate to Adam) or are you one of the high exalted?" (Iblis) said "I am better than he, You created me from fire, and You created him from clay." (Allah) said: "Then get you from here, for verily, you are outcast. And verily!, My Curse is on you till the Day of Recompense." (Iblis) said: 'My Lord! Give me then respite till the Day the (dead) are resurrected." Allah said: "Verily! You are of those allowed respite - till the Day of the time appointed." Iblis said: "By Your Might, then I will surely mislead them all, - except Your chosen slaves amongst them (faithful, obedient, true believers of Islamic Monotheism)." (Allah) said: "The truth is, and the truth I say, - that I will fill Hell with you (Iblis) and those of them (mankind) that follow you, together." Surah 38: 71-85 Commentary: Prostrating before Adam We imagine when Allah the Almighty decided to create Adam: He addressed His angels and told them to prostrate before him. He did not mean to ask their opinion or take their advice, for He is above that. Allah the Exalted told them that He was going to create a vicegerent on the earth who would have children and grandchildren who would corrupt the earth and shed each other's blood. That is why the angels said to Allah the Almighty: "Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood!" Surah 2:30 Traditions about the Angels There are old traditions about the angels before the creation of Adam. According to Ibn Qatadah, it was said that the angels were informed about the creation of Adam and his progeny by the jinn who lived before Adam. 'Abdullah Ibn 'Umar said that the jinn had existed for about two thousand years before Adam and then shed blood. Therefore, Allah sent on them an army of angels that drove them out to the depths of the seas. Thn Abi Hatim narrated from Ali Jafar Al-Baqer that the angels were informed that man would cause wickedness and shed blood on earth. It was also said that they knew that no one would be created on earth who would not be wicked and shed blood. Whether or not these traditions are correct, the angels did understand that Allah would create a vicegerent on earth. Allah the Almighty announced that He was going to create a human being out of clay, that He would mold him and blow His spirit into him, and then the angels should prostrate before him. Creation Brief Version of the Creation of Man Abi Musa Al-Shaarai narrated that Prophet Muhammad said: "Allah created Adam from a handful of dust taken from different lands, so the children of Adam have been created according to the composition of the land. Therefore, from mankind we have white, red, black and yellow ones; we have good and evil, ease and sorrow, and what comes in between them." Getting the Clay to Make Man Ibn Masud and other companions of the Prophet said that Allah the Almighty sent Gabriel onto the earth to get Him clay therefrom. The earth said: "I seek refuge in Allah from your decreasing my quantity or disfiguring me." So Gabriel returned and did not take anything. And he said: "My Lord, the land sought refuge in You, and it was granted." So Allah sent Michael for the same purpose, and the land sought refuge with Allah and it was granted. So he went back and said to Allah what Gabriel had said before him. Then Allah sent the Angel of Death, and the land sought refuge in Allah. The angel said: "I also seek refuge with Allah from returning without carrying out His command." So he took clay from the face of the earth and mixed it. He did not take from one particular place, but rather he took white, red, and black clay (from different places). The Angel of Death ascended with it, and He (Allah) soaked the clay till it became sticky. Then Allah said to the angels: "Truly, I am going to create man from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me. Then you fall down prostrate to him. Surah 38: 71-72 The Angels' Fear of Adam So Allah shaped Adam into a human being, but he remained a figure of clay for forty years. The angels went past him. They were seized with fear by what they saw, and Iblis felt this fear most. He used to pass by the figure of Adam, buffeting it, which would make a sound like pottery. Allah told us: He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery. Surah 55: 14 The Breathing of Allah's Spirit When the time drew near to breathe the spirit into Adam, as Allah the Almighty decreed, He commanded the angels: 'When I breathe My spirit into him prostrate before him." Allah breathed His spirit into Adam and when it reached his head Adam sneezed. The angels said: "Say all praise belongs to Allah." Adam repeated: "All praise belongs to Allah." Allah said to him: "Your Lord has granted you mercy." When the spirit reached his eyes, Adam looked at the fruits of Paradise. When it reached his abdomen Adam felt an appetite for food. He jumped hurriedly before the spirit could reach his legs, so that he could eat from the fruits of Paradise. Allah, therefore, said: Man is created of haste. Surah 21: 37 And then: The angels prostrated themselves, all of them together. Except Iblis - he refused to be among the prostrators. Surah 15: 31-32 Another Version of Adam's Creation Another version of the story relates that Allah took a handful of the dust of the earth and mixed into it the colors white, black, yellow, and red. That is the reason why men are born different colors. When Allah mixed the dust with water, it turned into potter's clay that makes a sound. It was fermented and had a smell. Iblis passed by, wondering what was going to be made of that clay. From the clay Allah created Adam. He molded his form with His own hands and blew His spirit into him. Adam's body quivered as life was imbued into it. Verily, His Command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, "Be!"- and it is! Surah 37: 82 The Reason for Adam's Creation After this lesson about freedom, Adam learned another lesson, one about knowledge. Adam realized that Iblis was the symbol of evil in the universe and that the angels were the symbol of good. However, he did not yet know anything about himself. Then Allah made him perceive his true identity, the reason for his creation, and the secret of his glorification. Allah the Exalted said: And He taught Adam all the names (of everything). Surah 2: 31 Almighty Allah granted Adam the power to know the natures of all things and to summarize them by names: that is a bird, that is a star, that is a tree, that is a cloud, etc. Allah implanted in Adam an insatiable need for and love of knowledge and a desire to bequeath knowledge to his children. This was the reason for his creation and the secret in his glorification. Establishing the Islamic Greeting Abu Hurairah narrated that Prophet Muhammad said: "Allah created Adam from dust after He mixed the clay and left him for some time until it became sticky mud, after which Allah shaped him. After that Allah left him till it became like potter's clay. Iblis used to go past him saying: 'You have been created for a great purpose.' After that Allah breathed His spirit into him. The first thing into which the spirit passed was his eye and then his nose. He sneezed. Allah said: 'May your Lord have mercy upon you, 0 Adam! Go to those angels and see what they would say.' So Adam went and greeted them. They replied saying: 'Peace be upon you and the mercy and blessings of Allah.' Allah said: '0 Adam! This is your greeting and that of your offspring. Sahih Al-Bukhari Adam's Progeny Accept Allah Allah the Almighty revealed: And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (or from Adam's loin his offspring) and made them testify as to themselves (saying): "Am I not your Lord?" They said: "Yes! We testify," lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection: "Verily, we have been unaware of this." Or lest you should say: "It was only our fathers aforetime who took others as partners in worship along with Allah, and we were (merely their) descendants after them; will you then destroy us because of the deeds of men who practiced Al-Batil (i.e. polytheism and committing crimes and sins, invoking and worshipping others besides Allah)?" Thus do We explain the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) in detail, so that they may turn (unto the truth).' Surah 7: 172-174 Adam's progeny declared: "Our Lord, we bear witness that You are our Lord; we have no other Lord but Allah." Allah raised their father Adam, and he looked at them and saw those of them who were rich, those who were poor, those who had good forms and those who did not. Adam said: "0 Allah! I wish You to make Your servants equal." Allah replied: "I love being thanked." Adam saw among the prophets like lamps among his progeny. The Prophet's Covenant Almighty Allah declared: And (remember) when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you (0 Muhammad), and from Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus - son of Mary. We took from them a strong covenant. Surah 33: 7 In another verse Allah the Exalted commanded: "So set you (0 Muhammad) your face towards the religion of pure Islamic Monotheism Hanifan (worship none but Allah Alone) Allah's Fitrah (i.e. Allah's Islamic Monotheism), with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in khalqillah (i.e. the Religion of Allah - Islamic Monotheism), that is the straight religion, but most men know not." Surah 30:30 Similarity between Adam and Jesus (PBUT) Allah the Almighty declared: Verily, the likeness of Jesus, in Allah's Sight is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: "Be!" - and he was. Surah 3: 59 Angels' Prostate in Front of Adam The Meaning of the Angels' Prostration Adam opened his eyes and saw all the angels prostrating before him except one being who was standing at a distance. Adam did not know what kind of creature it was that did not prostrate before him, nor did he know its name. Iblis was standing with the angels so as to be included in the command given to them, but he was not one of them. He was a jinn, and, as such he was supposed to be inferior to the angels. What is clear is that this prostration was to show respect and did not mean that the angels were worshipping Adam. Prostrating, in worship is done only for Allah. Iblis's Refusal to Prostrate - Surah 15 Almighty Allah recounted the story of Iblis's refusal to prostrate before Adam: And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "I am going to create a man (Adam) from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud. So, when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him (Adam) the soul which I created for him, then fall (you) down prostrating yourselves unto him." So, the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together. Except Iblis, - he refused to be among the prostrators. (Allah) said: "0 Iblis! What is your reason for not being among the prostrators?" (Iblis) said: "I am not the one to prostrate myself to a human being, whom You created from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud." (Allah) said: "Then, get out from here, for verily, you are Rajim (an outcast or a cursed one). And verily, the curse shall be upon you till the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection)." Surah 15: 28-35 Iblis's Reason for not Prostrating In another surah Almighty Allah recounted it thus: And surely, We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being), then We told the angels, "Prostrate to Adam" and they prostrated, except Iblis, he refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: 'What prevented you (0 Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you?" Iblis said: "I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay." Allah said: "(0 Iblis) get down from this (Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced." (Iblis) said: "Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (i.e. The Day of Resurrection)." Allah said: "You are of those allowed respite." Surah 7: 11-15 Commentary: Iblis's Refusal to Prostrate Ibn Jarir reported that Muhammad Ibn Sirin said that the first one to reach a conclusion by reasoning was Iblis and that the sun and moon were not worshipped except through this method. This means that Iblis tried to compare himself to Adam. He believed that he was more honorable than Adam. Therefore, he abstained from prostrating, even though Allah had commanded him to do so, just as He had commanded the angels. If an analogy is made, we see that Iblis is vain. For indeed, clay is better than fire because in it can be found the qualities of calmness, clemency, perseverance, and growth; whereas in fire can be found heedlessness, insignificance, haste, and incineration. Iblis tried in vain to justify his refusal: "Shall I prostrate to one whom You created from clay?" (Iblis) said: "See? This one whom You have honored above me, if You give me respite (keep me alive) to the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring (by sending them astray) all but a few!" Surah 17: 62 Adam's Perspective of Iblis Adam was following what was happening around him and had feelings of love, awe, and astonishment. Deep love of Allah, Who had created and glorified him and Who had made His angels prostrate before him. Awe of the Creator's wrath when He excluded Iblis from His mercy. Adam was surprised by this creature, Iblis, who abhorred him without even knowing him, and who imagined himself better than Adam without having proved that he was worthier. What a strange creature Iblis was, and how strange was his excuse for not prostrating! He (Iblis) imagined that fire is better than clay, but how did he get such an idea? Such knowledge is exclusive to Allah Who created fire and clay and Who knows which is the better of the two. From the dialogue Adam realized that Iblis was a creature characterized by cunning and ingratitude. He then knew that Iblis was his eternal enemy. He was greatly astonished at Iblis's audacity and Allah's tolerance. Immediately after his creation, Adam witnessed the large amount of freedom that Allah gives to His commissioned creatures. Commentary: Allah's Freedom to Creatures Allah knew that Iblis was not going to obey Him in prostrating before Adam. Allah could have totally annihilated him or turned him into a handful of dust or stifled the refusal in his mouth. Yet, Allah gives His commissioned creatures absolute freedom even to the extent that they can refuse Allah the Almighty's commands. He grants them the freedom of denial, disobedience, and even disagreement with Him. His kingdom will not diminish if the disbelievers do not believe in Him, nor will it be extended if many people believe in Him. On the contrary, the disbelievers will lose, and the believers will gain, but Allah is above all of that. Adam Learns Names After Adam had learned the names of all things, along with their properties and uses, Allah presented them to the angels and said: "Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful." Surah 2:31 The angels admitted their inability: "Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Verily, it is You, The All-Knowing, The All-Wise. " Surah 2:32 Allah Almighty then turned to Adam: "0 Adam! inform them of their names," and when he had informed them of their names, He said: "Did I not tell you that I know the Ghaib (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing?" Surah 2:33 Allah wanted the angels to know that He knew of their astonishment when He had told them about the creation of Adam and that He also knew of their confusion which they had not revealed, as well as what Iblis had concealed of his disobedience and ingratitude. Angels Acknowledge Adam's Knowledge The angels realized that Adam was the creature who knew what they did not know and that his capacity to learn was his noblest quality. His knowledge included knowledge of the Creator which we call Faith or Islam, as well as the knowledge that he would need to inhabit and master the earth, and all kinds of worldly knowledge which are included in this. Creation of Eve The Reason for Eve's Creation Adam knew the names of everything. Sometimes he talked to the angels, but they were preoccupied with worshiping Almighty Allah. Therefore, Adam felt lonely. One day he slept and when he awoke he found, near his head, a woman gazing at his face with beautiful, tender eyes. Perhaps they had the following conversation: Adam: You were not here before I slept. She: Yes. He: From what...? She: I came out of you. Allah created me while you were asleep. Do you not desire to restore me to you while you are awake? He: Why has Allah created you? She: To be your solace. He: Thanks to Allah I was feeling lonely. Eve's Name The angels asked him her name. He replied: "Eve (Hawwa)." They asked: "Why did you call her Eve?" Adam said: "Because she was created of me, and I am a living being." (The root of the name Hawwa" means "living things.") Adam Sees Eve Ibn Abbas and a group of the companions of the Prophet narrated that when Iblis was sent out of Paradise and Adam was accommodated therein, Adam was alone in Paradise and did not have a partner from whom he could get tranquillity. He slept for some time and when he woke up, he saw a woman whom Allah had created from his ribs. So he asked her: "Who are you?" She replied: "A woman." He asked: "Why have you been created?" She replied: "So that you could find tranquillity in me." The angels, trying to find out the extent of his knowledge, asked him: "What is her name, 0 Adam?" He replied: "Eve." They asked: "Why was she so named?" He replied: "Because she was created from something living." Eve's Creation Muhammad Ibn Ishaaq and Ibn 'Abbas related that Eve was created from the shortest left rib of Adam while he was sleeping, and after a while she was clothed with flesh. That is why Allah the Exalted said: 0 Mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam) and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women. Surah 4: 1 Allah also said: It is He Who has created you from a single person (Adam), and (then) He created from him his wife (Eve), in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her. Surah 7: 189 The Location of Adam and Eve's Paradise The location of this Paradise is unknown to us. The Qur'an did not reveal it, and the commentators had five different opinions. Some said that it was the paradise of our refuge and that its place was heaven. Others negated that statement because if it was the paradise of refuge, Iblis would have been forbidden admission and disobedience would have been forbidden as well. Still others said that it was another paradise that was created by Allah for Adam and Eve. A fourth group said that it was a paradise on the earth, located in a high place. Another group of commentators accept what was in the Qur'an without questioning where this paradise was located. We agree with this last opinion, as the lesson we learn from its location is immaterial compared to the lesson we learn from the events that took place there. The Forbidden Tree Allah's Warning to Adam and Eve Adam and Eve were admitted to Paradise and there they lived the dream of all human beings. Allah permitted them to approach and enjoy everything except one tree, that might have been the Tree of Pain or the Tree of Knowledge. Allah forbade them before they were given abode in Paradise: "0 Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimeen (wrong-doers). " Surah 2: 35 Adam's Weakness Adam and Eve understood that they were forbidden to eat the fruit of that tree. Adam was, however, a human being, and man tends to forget. His heart changes and his will weakens. Iblis summoned all the envy within him and took advantage of Adam's humanity to exploit him. He started to whisper to him day after day, coaxing him: "Shall I guide you to the Tree of Immortality and the Eternal Kingdom?" And he said to them: "Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals." And he (Satan) swore by Allah to them both (saying): "Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both." Surah 7: 20-21 Adam asked himself: "What will happen if I eat from this tree? It might truly be the Tree of Immortality." His dream was to live forever in the pure innocence of Paradise. Adam and Eve Eat from the Forbidden Tree Years went by, and Adam and Eve were preoccupied with thoughts of that tree. Then, one day, they decided to eat of its fruit. They forgot that Allah had warned them not to approach it and that Iblis was their sworn enemy. Adam stretched out his hand, picked one of the fruits, and offered it to Eve. They both ate of the forbidden tree. Allah Almighty told us: "So he Satan misled them with deception. "2 Surah 7: 22 Allah also said: Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray. Surah 20: 121 Old Testament Version - The Forbidden Tree According to the Old Testament, Eve was tempted by the serpent to eat of the forbidden tree. She ate because of the words of the serpent and fed Adam some of it. At that moment, their eyes were opened to the fact that they were naked, and they took the leaves of the fig tree to cover themselves. Wahb Ibn Munabah said that their clothing (before their sin) was made of light on the private parts of both of them. This story in the Old Testament is a falsification and deception. Allah the Almighty revealed: "0 Children of Adam! Let not Satan deceive you, as he got your parents (Adam and Eve) out of Paradise, stripping them of their raiments; to show them their private parts. Verily he and Qabiluhu (his soldiers from the jinn or his tribe) see you from where you cannot see them. Verily, We made the devils protectors and helpers) for those who believe not. " Surah 7: 27 Adam and Eve Ask for Forgiveness Adam had hardly finished eating when he felt his heart contract, and he was filled with pain, sadness, and shame. The surrounding atmosphere had changed and the internal music had stopped. He discovered that he and his wife were naked, so they both started cutting tree leaves with which to cover themselves. Allah the Almighty addressed him: "Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Satan is an open enemy unto you?" They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers." (Allah) said: "Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (i.e., Adam, Eve, and Satan, etc.). On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment, - for a time." He said: "Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (i.e. resurrected)." Surah 7: 22-25 Various Stories About Adam and Eve's Mistake Again there are old stories about these events. Al-Hafez Ibn 'Asaker narrated that Allah commanded two angels to remove Adam from His holy proximity. So Gabriel stripped him of the crown on his head, and Michael took the diadem from his forehead. Adam thought that his punishment had been hastened and bowed down crying: "Forgiveness! Forgiveness!" So Allah asked: "Are you running away from Me?" Adam replied: "No, my Lord, but I am shy of You." Abdul Rahman Ibn Amru Al-Awzaiy said that Adam spent one hundred years in Paradise. In another narration it was said that he spent sixty years. Ibn Asaker reported that Adam wept for sixty years for his loss of Paradise and seventy years for his mistake, and he wept for another seventy years when his son was killed. Adam and Eve's Decent from Paradise They left Paradise and descended upon the earth. Adam was sad and Eve was crying. Allah accepted their repentance because it was sincere, and He told them that the earth would be their realm and origin where they would live and die and whence they would come on the Day of Judgment. Condensed Story of Adam and Allah's Promise Allah the Almighty recounted this third lesson Adam learned in Paradise: And indeed We made a covenant with Adam before, but he forgot, and We found on his part no firm will-power. And (remember) when We said to the angels "Prostrate yourselves to Adam." They prostrated (all) except Iblis, who refused. Then We said: "0 Adam! Verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife. So let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you be distressed in misery. Verily, you have (a promise from Us) that you will never be hungry therein nor naked. And you (will) suffer not from thirst therein nor from the sun's heat." Then Satan whispered to him, saying: "0 Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away?" Then they both ate of the tree, and so their private parts appeared to them, and they began to stick on themselves the leaves from Paradise for their covering. Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness, and gave him guidance. (Allah) said: "Get you down (upon the earth), both of you, together (from Paradise), some of you are an enemy to some others. Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance shall neither go astray, nor fall into distress and misery. But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (i.e. neither believes in this Qur'an nor acts on its orders, etc.) verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection." He will say: "0 my Lord! Why have you raised me up blind, while I had sight (before)." (Allah) will say: "Like this, Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) came unto you, but you disregarded them (i.e. you left them, did not think deeply in them, and you turned away from them), and so this Day, you will be neglected (in the Hell-Fire, away from Allah's Mercy). And thus do We requite him who transgresses beyond bounds i.e. commits the great sins and disobeys his Lord (Allah) and believes not in His Messengers, and His revealed Books, like this Quran. etc., and believes not in the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of his Lord, and the torment of the Hereafter is far more severe and more lasting. " Surah 20: 115-127 Commentary: Why Adam and Eve Decended Some people believe that the reason why mankind does not dwell in Paradise is that Adam was disobedient and that if it had not been for this sin, we could have been there all along. These are naive fictions because when Almighty Allah wanted to create Adam, He said to the angels: "I shall make a vicegerent on the earth." He did not say: "I shall make a vicegerent in Paradise." Adam's descent on earth, then, was not due to degradation but rather it was a dignified descent. Allah knew that Adam and Eve would eat of the tree and descend to earth. He knew that Satan would rape their innocence. That experience was essential for their life on earth; it was a cornerstone of their vicegerency. It was meant to teach Adam, Eve, and their progeny that it was Satan who had caused them to be expelled from Paradise and that the road to Paradise can only be reached by obedience to Allah and enmity to Satan. Commentary: Adam's Free Will Could it be said that Adam and the rest of mankind were predestined to sin and to be expelled from Paradise and sent to the earth? In fact, this fiction is as naive as the first one. Adam had complete free will, and he bore the consequences of his deed. He disobeyed by eating of the forbidden tree, so Allah dismissed him from Paradise. His disobedience does not negate his freedom. On the contrary, it is a consequence of it. The truth of the matter is that Allah knew what was going to happen, as He always knows the outcome of events before they take place. However, Allah does not force things to happen. He grants free will to His human creatures. On that He bases His supreme wisdom in populating the earth, establishing the vicegerents, and so on. Adam understood his third lesson. He knew now in a practical way that Iblis was his enemy, the cause of his losing the blessing of living in Paradise, and the cause of his distress. Adam also understood that Allah punishes disobedience and that the way to Paradise has to be through submission to the will of Allah. And he learned from Almighty Allah to ask for forgiveness. Allah accepted Adam's repentance and forgave him. He then sent him to the earth as His first messenger. Encounter Between Adam and Moses (PBUT) - Hadith Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah's Messenger said: "Adam and Moses argued with each other. Moses said to Adam: Your sin expelled you from Paradise. Adam said to him: 'You are Moses whom Allah selected as His messenger and as the one to whom He spoke directly. Yet you blame me for a thing which had already been written in my fate before my Creation?' Allah's Prophet Muhammad said twice: "So, Adam outclassed Moses." Umar Ibn Al-Khattab also narrated that Prophet Muhammad said: "Moses said: 'My Lord! May I see Adam who removed us and himself from the Paradise?' So Allah made him see Adam, and he said to him: 'Are you Adam?' Adam said: 'Yes.' And he said: 'Were you the one in whom Allah breathed His spirit, and before whom He bowed His angels, and to whom He taught the names of all things?' Adam answered: 'Yes.' So Moses said: 'What made you remove us and yourself from Paradise?' Adam said unto him: 'Who are you?' He said: 'I am Moses.' Adam said: 'So you are Moses the prophet of the Children of Israel. Were you the one Allah spoke to directly?' Moses answered: 'Yes.' Adam said: 'Why do you blame me for a matter which Allah had predestined?"' So Allah's Prophet Muhammad said twice. "Adam outclassed Moses." Variation on Where Adam, Eve, and Iblis Descended There are many traditions concerning the place of Adam's descent upon earth. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn Abbas said: "Adam descended on land called 'Dihna' between Mecca (Makkah) and Taif." Al-Hassan said that Adam descended in India, Eve in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), Iblis in Bodistiman (Iraq), and the serpent in Ashahan (Iran). This was also reported by Ibn Hatim. Assady related that Adam descended with the Black Stone1 in India (A large black stone set into the wail of the Kaba in Mecca; it is said to have come from Paradise), and he had a handful of the seeds of Paradise. He sowed them in India and they grew into the fragrant tree therein. Lbn Umar said that Adam descended on As-Safa and Eve on Al-Marwa (As-Safa and Al-Marwa are the names of two mountains in the vicinity of the Sacred House in Mecca; part of the rites of pilgrimage (Hajj) Include pacing between these two hills in commemoration of Hajar's search for water). This was also reported by Ibn Hatim. AbdulRazzaq reported that Abi Musa Al-Shari said that when Allah ordered Adam to descend from Paradise to earth, He taught him the making of everything and provided him with the crops from Paradise. Abu Hurairah narrated that Prophet Muhammad said: "The best of days on which the sun has risen is Friday. On this day Adam was created, and on this day he was descended to earth."3 Adam's Life on Earth Adam knew he bade farewell to peace when he left Paradise. On earth he had to face conflict and struggle. No sooner had one ended than another began. He also had to toil to sustain himself. He had to protect himself with clothes and weapons and protect his wife and children from the wild beasts. Above all, he had to struggle with the spirit of evil. Satan, the cause of his expulsion from Paradise, continued to beguile him and his children in an effort to have them thrown into the eternal hellfire. The battle between good and evil is continuous, but those who follow Allah's guidance should fear nothing, while those who disobey Allah and follow Iblis will be damned along with him. Adam grasped all of this, and, with the knowledge of this suffering, he started his life on the earth. The only thing that allayed his grief was that he was master of the earth and had to make it yield to him. He was the one who had to perpetuate, cultivate, construct and populate the earth. He was also the one who had to procreate and raise children who would change and improve the world. The First Four Children The pinnacle of earthly bliss was reached when Adam and Eve witnessed the birth of their first children, a set of twins. Adam was a devoted father and Eve a contented mother. The twins were Cain (Qabil) and his sister. Later Eve gave birth to a second set of twins, Abel (Habil) and his sister. The family enjoyed the bounties and fruits of the earth provided by their Lord. The children grew up to be strong and healthy young adults. Cain tilled the land, while Abel raised cattle. Cain's Disobedience The time arrived when the two young men desired life partners. This was part of Allah's plan for mankind, to multiply and form nations with different cultures and colors. Allah revealed to Adam that he should marry each son to the twin sister of the other. Adam instructed his children according to Allah's command, but Cain was displeased with the partner chosen for him, for Abel's twin-sister was not as beautiful as his own. Commentary: Cain's Disobedience It appears that since the beginning of time, physical beauty has been a factor in the attraction between men and women. This attraction caused Cain to envy his brother Abel. He rebelled against Allah's command by refusing to accept his father's advice. At first glance Cain's rebellion might appear strange, but we should remember that, although man has a pure nature, the potential for dichotomy exists. In other words, he has both good and bad qualities. He can become greedy, covetous, possessive, selfish and even destructive. Man is, therefore, capable of seeking self-satisfaction even if it leads to failure in this life and in the hereafter. The path to goodness lies in harnessing the enemy within him, his baser self, by controlling evil thoughts and deeds and practicing moderation in his desires and actions. His reward then will be the delights of this world and the hereafter. Thus Allah tests us through our divided nature. Cain's Jealousy of Abel Adam was in a dilemma. He wanted peace and harmony in his family, so he invoked Allah for help. Allah commanded that each son offer a sacrifice, and he whose offering was accepted would have right on his side. Abel offered his best camel, while Cain offered his worst grain. His sacrifice was not accepted by Allah because of his disobedience to his father and the insincerity in his offering. This enraged Cain even further. Realizing that his hopes of marrying his own beautiful sister were fading, he threatened his brother: "I will kill you! I refuse to see you happy while I remain unhappy!" Abel, feeling sorry for his brother, replied: "It would be more proper for you, my brother, to search for the cause of your unhappiness and then walk in the way of peace. Allah accepts deeds only from those who serve and fear Him, not from those who reject His commands." The First Death Abel was intelligent, obedient, and always ready to obey the will of Allah. This contrasted sharply with his brother, who was arrogant, selfish and disobedient to his Lord. Abel did not fear his brother's threats, but neither did he want his brother to be hurt. Allah had blessed Abel with purity and compassion. Hoping to allay the hatred seething in his brother, Abel said: "My brother, you are deviating from the right path and are sinful in your decisions. It is better that you repent to Allah and forget about your foolish threat. But if you do not, then I will leave the matter in the hands of Allah. You alone will bear the consequence of your sin, for the Fire is the reward of the wrong-doers." This brotherly plea did nothing to lessen the hatred in Cain's heart, nor did he show fear of Allah's punishment. Even familial considerations were cast aside. Cain struck his brother with a stone, killing him instantly. This was the first death and the first criminal act committed by man on earth. When Abel had not appeared for some time, Adam began to search for him but found no trace of his beloved son. He asked Cain about Abel's whereabouts. Cain insolently replied that he was not his brother's keeper nor his protector. From these words his father understood that Abel was dead and Adam was filled with grief. The First Burial Meanwhile, Cain did not know what to do with his brother's corpse. He carried it on his back wandering from place to place, trying to hide it. His anger had now subsided, and his conscience was saddled with guilt. He was tiring under the burden of the corpse which had started to have a stench. As a mercy, and to show that dignity could be retained even in death, Allah sent two ravens that began fighting, causing the death of one. The victorious bird used its beak and claws to dig a hole in the ground, rolled its victim into it and covered it with sand. Witnessing this, Cain was overcome with shame and remorse. "Woe unto me!" he exclaimed. "I was unable to do what this raven has done, that is to hide my brother's corpse." Cain then buried his brother. This was also the first burial of man. The First Murder - from Qur'an Allah the Almighty revealed: And (0 Muhammad) recite to them (the Jews) the story of the two sons of Adam Abel and Cain - Habil and Qabil respectively in truth; when each offered a sacrifice (to Allah), it was accepted from the one but not from the other. The latter said to the former: "I will surely kill you." The former said: "Verily, Allah accepts only from those who are Al-Muttaqeen (the pious). If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me, I shall never stretch my hand against you to kill you, for I fear Allah; the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, jinn, and all that exists). Verily I intend to let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours, then you will be one of the dwellers of the Fire, and that is the recompense of the Zalimeen (polyt heists, and wrong-doers)." So the Nafs (self) of the other (latter one) encouraged him and made fair-seeming to him the murder of his brother; he murdered him and became one of the losers. Then Allah sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him to hide the dead body of his brother. He (the murderer) said: "Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother?" Then he became one of those who regretted. Surah 5:27-31 The First Murder - from Various Hadith Ibn Abbas, Ibn Masud and a group of the companions of the Prophet related that inter-marriage of the male of one pregnancy with the female of another had been in practice among Adam's children. Abel wanted to marry Cain's sister, but Cain wanted her for himself because she was very beautiful. Adam ordered him to give her in marriage to his brother, but he refused. So Adam ordered both of them to offer a sacrifice, then went to Mecca (Makkah) to perform the pilgrimage. After Adam had left, they offered their sacrifices: Abel offered a fat lamb - he was a shepherd - while Cain offered a bundle of the worst grain. A fire descended and devoured Abel's sacrifice, leaving that of Cain, so he became angry and said: "I will surely kill you so that you will not marry my sister." Abel replied: "Allah accepts from those who fear Him." According to Abu Jaafar Al-Baqer, Adam was watching their offering and was sure that Abel's sacrifice would be accepted. Cain complained to Adam that the acceptance was due to his supplication for Abel and that he had not done the same for him, so he promised his father to settle the matter between himself and his brother. One night, Abel was late returning from tending his flock. Adam sent Cain to see what had happened to him. When he found him, he glared at him saying: "Yours was accepted, and mine was not." Abel replied: "Allah only accepts from the Allah-fearing." Cain became angry on hearing this and hit him with a piece of iron that was with him, thus killing him. In another version it was said that he killed him with a rock to the head while he was sleeping. Adam Preaches to His Children Adam was utterly grief-stricken by the loss of his two sons: one was dead, the other was won over by the devil. Adam prayed for his son and turned to mundane matters, for he had to toil for his sustenance. At the same time, he was a prophet, advising his children and grandchildren, telling them about Allah, and calling them to believe in Him. He told them about Iblis and warned them by recounting his own experience with the devil and of how the devil had tempted Cain to kill his brother. Adam's Successor, Seth Years and years passed, Adam grew old, and his children spread all over the earth. Muhammad Ibn Ishaq related: that when Adam's death drew near, he appointed his son Seth (Shiith) to be his successor, and taught him the hours of the day and night along with their appropriate acts of worship. He also foretold to him the flood that would come. Abu Dhar narrated that Prophet Muhammad said: "Allah sent down one hundred four psalms, of which fifty were sent down to Seth." Adam's Death Abdullah Ibn Al-Iman Ahmad Ibn Hanbal narrated that Ubai Ibn Kab said: "When Adam's death was near, he said to his children: '0 my children, indeed, I feel an appetite for the fruits of Paradise.' So they went away searching for what Adam had requested. They met with the angels, who had with them his shroud and what he was to be embalmed with. They said to them: '0 Children of Adam, what are you searching for? What do you want? Where are you going?' They said: 'Our father is sick and has an appetite for the fruits of Paradise.' The angels said to them: 'Go back, for your father is going to meet his end soon.' So they returned (with the angels), and when Eve saw them she recognized them. She tried to hide herself behind Adam. He said to her: 'Leave me alone. I came before you; do not go between me and the angels of my Lord.' So they took his soul, embalmed and wrapped him, dug the grave and laid him in it. They prayed on him and put him in his grave, saying: '0 Children of Adam, this is your tradition at the time of death."' Before his death Adam reassured his children that Allah would not leave man alone on the earth, but would send His prophets to guide them. The prophets would have different names, traits and miracles, but they would be united in one thing: the call to worship Allah alone. This was Adam's bequest to his children. Adam finished speaking and closed his eyes. Then the angels entered his room and surrounded him. When he recognized the Angel of Death among them, his heart smiled peacefully. Successor After Adam After Adam's death, his son Seth (Shiith) took over the responsibilities of prophethood, according to a hadith narrated by Abu Dhar. Abu Dhar also narrated that Prophet Muhammad said: "Allah sent down one hundred four psalms, of which fifty were sent down to Seth." When the time of his death came, Seth's son Anoush succeeded him. He in turn, was succeeded by his son Qinan, who was succeeded by his son Mahlabeel. The Persians claim that Mahlabeel was the King of the Seven Regions, that he was the first one to cut down trees to build cities and large forts and that he built the cities of Babylonia. He reigned for a period of forty years. When he died his duties were taken over by his son Yard, who on his death, bequeathed them to his son Khonoukh, who is Idris according to the majority of the scholars (Ulama).