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Al-Andalus (2)

assalamoalaikum wr wb

here is the summary of the second part

"Al-Andalus was the arabic name given to the parts of the lberian peninsula and Septimania governed by arab and North African muslims (given the generic name Moors),at various times in the period between 711 an 1492.

Following the conquest Al-andalus was divided into five administrative areas roughly corresponding to Andulsia,Galicia and Lusitania,Castile and leon,Aragon and Catalonia,and Septimania.As a political domain or domains,it successively constituted a province of the Umayyad Caliphate,initiated by the Caliph Al Walid 1(711-750);the Emirate of Cordoba(c.750-929);the Caliphate of Cordoba(929-1031) and the Caliphate of Cordoba's taifa(successor )kingdoms.

In suceeding centuries,Al-Andalus became a province of Berber Muslim dunasties of the Almoravids and Almohads,subsequently fragmenting into a anumber of minor states,most notably the Emirate of Granada.For large parts of its history,prticularly under the Caliphate of Cordoba,Al-Andalus was the beacon of learning,and the city of Cordoba became one of the leading cultural and economic centres in bothe the Mediterranian bsin and the islamic world.

For much of its history Al-Andalus existed in conflict with christian kingdoms to the north.In 1085,Alfanso Vl of leon and Castile captured Toledo precipitating the grafual decline until,by 1236,with the fall of Cordoba,the Emirate of Granada remained the only muslim ruled territory in what is now Spain.The Portugese Reconquista of the Al-Garve Al-Fansolll.In 1238 Granada officially became a tributary state to the kingdom of Castile,than ruled by Ferdinandlll.On Jnauary 2,1492,Muhammad Xll surrendered complete control of Granada to Ferdinand and Isabella,Los Reyes Catolicos,"The Catholic Monarchs".

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ws wr wb

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Hafiza Juwayriah Haani


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